Abstract.Problems classified in complexity theory as NP-difficult are inherently
harder than those that can be solved non-deterministically in polynomial time.
Many solutions adopt nature-inspired meta-heuristics to approach NP-difficult
problems. Ant Colony Systems and Multi-Agent Systems are combined to produce
more robust solutions for complex real-world problems. Intelligent problem
solutions naturally emerge due to stigmergy. The proposed hybrid meta-heuristic
is described using ants and agents concepts. |